Climate, health and social justice experts tell us how we can come out of the coronavirus crisis better than before.

气候、健康和社会正义专家告诉我们,我们如何才能比以往更好地走出冠状病毒危机。

The coronavirus is more than a vector of disease: It is a window onto our greatest failings. The pandemic has exposed a lot of weak points in society, from the lack of health care access and worker protection in the U.S., to the ways cities have been designed for cars instead of pedestrians, to the fragility of food supply chains. COVID-19 has disproportionately affected low-income workers and communities of color, revealing how historical biases have created and reinforced inequalities in society. It has shown that our abuse of the natural world is untenable.

冠状病毒不仅仅是疾病的载体:它是揭示我们最大缺点的窗口。大流行暴露了社会上的许多弱点,从美国缺乏医疗保健和工人保护,到城市是为汽车而不是行人设计的,再到食品供应链的脆弱性。COVID-19对低收入工人和有色人种社区的影响格外严重,这表明历史偏见是如何在社会中造成和加强不平等的。它表明我们滥用自然世界是站不住脚的。


“In the most painful way, pandemics show us what we need to fix in our world.”

“流行病以最痛苦的方式向我们展示了我们的世界需要解决的问题。”

Aaron Bernstein, interim director, Center for Climate, Health and the Global Environment at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and pediatric hospitalist at Boston Children’s Hospital

艾伦·伯恩斯坦,哈佛大学陈曾熙公共卫生学院气候、健康和全球环境中心临时主任,波士顿儿童医院儿科医院医生

In the most painful way, pandemics show us what we need to fix in our world. The stress they cause reveals all those parts that most need repair. With COVID, we have seen how festering economic, health and social disparities can blow up in our face. These injustices are the fissures through which pandemics, climate change and other threats to our health course through. At the same time, we can now see that the very actions we need to address the climate crisis, namely lesser reliance on fossil fuels and preventing deforestation, can forestall the next pandemic and promote a healthier, more just and sustainable world.

流行病以最痛苦的方式向我们展示了我们需要在这个世界上解决什么问题。它们造成的压力揭示了所有那些最需要修复的部分。在新冠肺炎疫情中,我们看到了不断恶化的经济、卫生和社会不平等是如何在我们面前爆发的。这些不公平现象正是大流行病、气候变化和其他对我们健康的威胁所产生的裂缝。与此同时,我们现在可以看到,我们应对气候危机所需要的行动,即减少对化石燃料的依赖和防止森林砍伐,能够预先阻止下一次大流行,并促进一个更健康、更公正和可持续的世界。

“Our response to this crisis must be transformative.”

“我们应对这场危机的方式必须是变革的。”

Priya Mulgaonkar, resiliency planner for the New York City Environmental Justice Alliance

纽约环境正义联盟的弹性规划师马尔冈卡说



If we have learned anything from 2020, it’s that our response to this crisis must be transformative. The idea of “returning to normal” often emerges in discussions of resilience. But we know a “normal” that is extractive of BIPOC communities and the planet is unacceptable. 2020 has shown that we need to think more holistically about what resilience should look like, and that issues of climate, housing, health, and economic justice are all intertwined.

如果说我们从2020年中学到了什么的话,那就是我们对这场危机的应对必须是变革性的。“回归正常”的想法经常出现在关于弹性的讨论中。但我们知道,对BIPOC群体和地球进行“正常”开采是不可接受的。2020年的情况表明,我们需要更全面地思考弹性应该是什么样的,气候、住房、健康和经济正义等问题都是相互交织的。

Snow is seen on the San Gabriel Mountains beyond downtown Los Angeles under a clear sky after weeks of storms and reduced traffic due to the COVID-19 stay-at-home order, on April 14, 2020.

2020年4月14日,在经历了数周的暴风雪和因冠状病毒病居家禁令导致交通减少后,洛杉矶市中心以外的圣加布里埃尔山脉上,天空晴朗,下起了雪。

“The biggest point to draw from this past year is that solidarity actually matters.”

“从过去一年的经历中可以得出的最重要的一点是,团结确实很重要。”

Bill McKibben, author, educator, environmentalist and founder of the nonprofit 350.org

比尔·麦基本,作家、教育家、环保主义者,非盈利组织350.org的创始人

The pandemic should remind us that physical reality is real ― I’ve been trying to make this point about carbon for years, that chemistry and physics don’t negotiate. The microbe makes the same point for biology. And as a corollary, fast action in the face of a crisis helps: South Korea had its first case the same day as the U.S. ― and one of those countries then acted swiftly to bend the curve and one didn’t. The same, obviously, goes for global warming.

这场大流行应该提醒我们,物质现实是真实的——多年来,我一直试图在碳问题上阐明这一点,化学和物理是不会妥协的。微生物在生物学上也证明了这一点。必然的结果是,在危机面前迅速采取行动会有所帮助:韩国和美国同一天就出现了首例病例——然后其中一个国家迅速采取行动扭转了形势,而另一个没有。显然,全球变暖也是如此。

But the biggest point to draw from this past year is that solidarity actually matters. We’ve lived, since President Ronald Reagan, in an era of anti-solidarity: Government is the problem; market forces solve all problems. Reagan’s big laugh line was always, “The nine scariest words in the English language are ‘I’m from the government and I’m here to help.’”

但从过去一年的经历中可以得出的最重要的一点是,申博百家乐登入:团结确实很重要。自罗纳德·里根总统以来,我们一直生活在一个反团结的时代:政府是个问题;市场力量解决一切问题。里根的笑语总是:“英语中最可怕的九个词是‘我来自政府,我是来帮忙的。’”


“Real climate solutions must be built around justice.”

“真正的气候解决方案必须围绕正义建立。”

Robert Bullard, distinguished professor of urban planning and environmental policy at Texas Southern University and author of several books

罗伯特·布拉德,德克萨斯南方大学城市规划与环境政策特聘教授,著有多本著作


The pandemic revealed severe flaws in our political, economic and health system that tolerated elevated risks to front-line essential workers and extremely high financial losses to small businesses owned by people of color. The pandemic widened the racial economic gap between “haves” and “have-nots.” Government pandemic stimulus and relief dollars followed a predictable pattern of “money following money, money following power, and money following whites.”

这场大流行暴露了我们的政治、经济和卫生系统的严重缺陷,这些缺陷容忍了一线重要工人面临的较高风险,也容忍了有色人种拥有的小企业遭受的极高财务损失。这一流行病扩大了"富人"和"穷人"之间的种族经济差距。政府的大规模刺激和救济资金遵循了一种可预测的模式:“钱追钱,钱追权力,钱追白人。”


As in the case of COVID-19 and climate change, the most vulnerable populations generally suffer the earliest and most damaging setbacks because of where they live, their limited income and economic means, and their lack of access to health care. Government response to climate-induced disasters — hurricanes, floods, droughts, heat waves, wildfires, and related events — inherently benefit whites and more affluent households, and leave behind the most vulnerable. Long before Hurricane Katrina devastated the U.S. Gulf Coast, people of color learned the hard way that waiting for the government to respond can be hazardous to their health.

就像冠状病毒疾病和气候变化的情况一样,由于居住地点、收入和经济手段有限以及无法获得医疗保健,最弱势群体通常会遭受最早和最具破坏性的挫折。政府对气候引起的灾害——飓风、洪水、干旱、热浪、野火及相关事件——的反应,必然有利于白人和较富裕的家庭,而留给最脆弱的群体。早在卡特里娜飓风摧毁美国墨西哥湾沿岸之前,有色人种就已经知道,等待政府做出反应对他们的健康是有害的。

Real climate solutions must be built around justice — climate justice, environmental justice, economic justice, health justice and racial justice.

真正的气候解决方案必须建立在正义之上——气候正义、环境正义、经济正义、健康正义和种族正义。

Nurse Hannah Sutherland, dressed in personal protective equipment, awaits new patients at a drive-thru coronavirus testing station at Cummings Park on March 23, 2020, in Stamford, Connecticut.

2020年3月23日,康涅狄格州斯坦福德,身穿个人防护装备的护士汉娜·萨瑟兰在康明斯公园的一个“得来速”冠状病毒检测站等待新患者。

“The COVID-19 pandemic ... provides us with an opportunity to reimagine and recreate public health.”

“冠状病毒疾病大流行……为我们提供了一个重新想象和重建公共卫生的机会。”

Lauren R. Powell, president and CEO of The Equitist, and vice president and head of health care at Time’s Up Foundation

任·鲍威尔,器械公司总裁兼首席执行官,Time’s Up基金会副总裁兼卫生保健主管

This moment is truly unlike any other. It’s made plain the deep social imbalances ― like poverty, racism, sexism, classism to name a few ― that are a new revelation for some, but have been common knowledge for many. As a trained public health professional and former state health official, I can’t help but think about the lessons that I hope health care and public health take and learn from the moment we’re in.

这一刻是独一无二的。它揭示了深层次的社会失衡——比如贫困、种族歧视、性别歧视、阶级歧视等等——这对一些人来说是一个新发现,但对很多人来说却是常识。作为一名训练有素的公共卫生专业人员和前国家卫生官员,我不禁想起我希望卫生保健和公共卫生部门从我们所处的时刻吸取的教训。

Public health and health care systems must embrace and actively work at anti-racism. To not do so is to intentionally feed the pathogen of the diseases and conditions that we’re charged with rooting out.

公共卫生和卫生保健系统必须拥抱并积极努力反种族主义。如果不这样做,就会故意助长疾病的病原体,而这些病原体正是我们要根除的疾病和条件。

We need more diverse messages and messengers: There are hundreds of exceptionally qualified Black & Brown, Native, LGBTQ+, multilingual, multicultural public health and health care leaders who are better versed at communicating and connecting with the diverse communities they come from. Public health and health care have to elevate diverse leaders to positions of authority and visibility and learn how to speak the language not of science, but of the people ― by connecting with community leaders, faith leaders, and everyday Americans long before the point of an emergency.

我们需要更多多样化的信息和信使:有数百名非常合格的黑人和棕色人种、本地人、LGBTQ+、多语言、多元文化的公共卫生和卫生保健领袖,他们更擅长与来自不同社区的人沟通和联系。公共卫生和卫生保健必须将不同的领导人提升到具有权威和知名度的位置,并通过在紧急情况发生之前很久就与社区领袖、宗教领袖和普通美国人联系,学习如何使用人民的语言,而不是科学的语言。


“We must never forget that essential workers are essential all of the time.”

“我们永远不能忘记,重要的工人在任何时候都是重要的。”

Ai-jen Poo, co-founder and executive director of the National Domestic Workers Alliance

蒲爱仁是全国家庭佣工联盟的联合创始人兼执行董事。

The pandemic revealed both how insecure so many workers are, and that many of the most insecure, undervalued jobs are essential ― essential to our health, safety and well-being. From the farm worker and grocery worker to the child care and home care worker ― many of our essential workers lacked the wages, paid sick time and family leave, access to health care and family care needed to keep themselves safe as they were keeping us all safe. We must never forget that essential workers are essential all of the time, and that all work in America should offer the basic safety and security that allows for our collective well-being.

这一大流行病既显示出如此多的工人多么缺乏安全感,也显示出许多最缺乏安全感、被低估的工作至关重要——对我们的健康、安全和福祉至关重要。从农场工人、杂货店工人到儿童护理和家庭护理人员,我们的许多基本工人缺乏工资、带薪病假和探亲假、医疗保健和家庭护理,这些都是保护他们自己安全所必需的,因为他们在保护我们所有人的安全。我们绝不能忘记,重要的劳动者在任何时候都是重要的,美国所有的劳动者都应该提供基本的安全和保障,为我们的集体福祉提供保障。

We can begin with supporting our care workforce ― if we invest in making home care and child care jobs good jobs ― raising wages, offering benefits and real opportunity, we not only improve life for the care workforce, we help enable the rest of America to get back to work, knowing that our loved ones are safe and in good hands. The president-elect has already named this as a priority for economic recovery, as part of his 21st Century Caregiving Plan. Now we must make it a reality.

我们可以开始支持保健劳动力——如果我们投资在家庭护理和儿童保健工作好工作——提高工资、提供福利和真正的机会,我们不仅改善关心员工的生活,帮助我们让其他美国人回去工作,知道我们所爱的人是安全的,在可靠的人手中。当选总统奥巴马已经把这列为经济复苏的重点,作为他21世纪照顾计划的一部分。现在我们必须使之成为现实。

“This horrific situation has been the impetus for an incredible new unity.”

“这种可怕的局势推动了令人难以置信的新团结。”


The pandemic wreaked devastation on the restaurant industry, and in particular on restaurant workers, who were already America’s lowest-wage workers. Prior to the pandemic, tipped restaurant workers received a subminimum wage of as little as $2.13 an hour at the federal level ... with the pandemic, the subminimum wage became a matter of life and death.

大流行对餐饮业造成了毁灭性的打击,尤其是对餐馆工人,他们已经是美国工资最低的工人了。在大流行之前,有小费的餐馆员工的最低工资只有2.13美元每小时。随着大流行病的发生,最低工资成为生死攸关的问题。

But this horrific situation has been the impetus for an incredible new unity in the industry for change. During the pandemic, we’ve seen hundreds of independent restaurant owners change their own wage structures to pay a full minimum wage with tips on top. Even the industry’s top trade magazines have had headlines declaring that the industry is rethinking the subminimum wage for tipped workers. Now we just need legislators to follow workers and employers who’ve already come to agree on this issue.

但这一可怕的情况已经成为推动行业内难以置信的新团结变革的动力。在疫情期间,我们看到数百家独立餐厅老板改变了他们自己的工资结构,支付全额最低工资,外加小费。就连业内顶尖的行业杂志都在头版头条宣称,行业正在重新考虑给小费工人的最低工资。现在我们只需要立法者跟随已经在这个问题上达成一致的工人和雇主。


People line up in their cars to receive food assistance at the Share Your Christmas food distribution event on Dec. 9, 2020, in Groveland, Florida. Central Florida food banks struggled to serve those facing food insecurity during the holiday season amid the COVID-19 pandemic.

2020年12月9日,在佛罗里达州的格罗夫兰,人们在自己的车里排队接受食品援助,分享你的圣诞食品分发活动。在2019冠状病毒病大流行期间,佛罗里达州中部的食品银行艰难地为那些面临食品安全问题的人们提供服务。


Marion Nestle, professor of nutrition, food studies, and public health, emerita, New York University, and author of books about food politics

Marion Nestle,营养学、食品研究和公共卫生教授,纽约大学荣誉退休教授,食品政治书籍的作者

The pandemic has taught punishing — and previously largely unrecognized ― lessons about the hazards of food systems designed for profit, not public health.

这次大流行给我们上了惩罚性的一课——在此之前,人们基本上没有意识到——食品系统的危害是为利润而非公共卫生而设计的。

There was the revelation that we have two distinctly separate food supplies, one for retail — supermarkets, groceries, and convenience stores — and the other for institutional food service in restaurants, schools, and the like. When these institutions closed, foods designated for them had no place to go and had to be destroyed. At the same time, the millions of people thrown out of work had no means of buying food. Many lined up for hours outside overstretched private food banks.

人们发现,我们有两种截然不同的食品供应,一种是零售食品——超市、杂货店和便利店,另一种是餐馆、学校等机构食品服务。当这些机构关闭后,为它们指定的食物无处可去,只能被销毁。与此同时,数百万失去工作的人没有办法购买食物。许多人在人满为患的私人食品银行外排队数小时。


We also quickly saw how severely COVID-19 affected people with conditions related to poor diet: obesity, hypertension, Type 2 diabetes, and heart disease, and how important healthful diets are for preventing these problems.

我们还很快看到了冠状病毒疾病对与不良饮食相关的疾病(肥胖、高血压、2型糖尿病和心脏病)患者的影响有多么严重,以及健康饮食对预防这些问题有多么重要。

Low-wage workers in meat packing plants, grocery stores, and farms were suddenly deemed essential, despite their lack of health care benefits and high risk of contagion.

肉类包装厂、杂货店和农场的低工资工人突然被认为是必需的,尽管他们缺乏医疗保健福利,而且有很高的传染风险。

If the pandemic does any good at all, it will be to stimulate public demand for a food system that addresses these problems and puts health and public welfare first. Let’s hope the new administration takes on this challenge and gets busy creating a food system that ends food insecurity, prevents diet-related chronic disease, protects against COVID-19, and while we are at it, produces less waste and environmental damage.

如果说大流行有什么好处的话,那就是刺激公众对食品体系的需求,解决这些问题,并把卫生和公共福利放在首位。让我们希望新一届政府接受这一挑战,并开始着手创建一个食品体系,终结食品不安全、预防与饮食有关的慢性疾病、预防COVID-19,同时减少浪费和环境破坏。

“What’s needed is for nations to take aggressive action that addresses the lixed needs of people and nature.”

“各国需要采取积极行动,解决人与自然的相关需求。”

Kai Chan, professor at the Institute for Resources, Environment and Sustainability at the University of British Columbia

陈凯,英属哥伦比亚大学资源、环境与可持续发展研究所教授



Furthermore, the same inequities and broken governance and management systems that propagate the biodiversity and climate crises also made us vulnerable to the COVID-19 pandemic.

此外,传播生物多样性和气候危机的不公平现象和失灵的治理和管理体系,也使我们容易受到冠状病毒疾病大流行的影响。

What’s needed in 2021 is for nations to take aggressive action toward transformative change that addresses the lixed needs of people and nature. In September, 64 world leaders signed The Leaders’ Pledge for Nature, committing to reverse biodiversity loss by tackling pollution, putting climate and the environment at the heart of pandemic recovery plans and building sustainable economies. All countries need to take all of the actions within this pledge. The world’s nations must also commit to an aggressive agenda for systemic change when they meet at the United Nation’s biodiversity conference in May.

2021年,各国需要采取积极行动,实现变革,解决人与自然的相关需求。今年9月,64位世界领导人签署了《领导人对自然的承诺》,承诺通过解决污染、将气候和环境置于大流行病恢复计划的核心并建设可持续经济来扭转生物多样性的丧失。所有国家都需要在这一承诺范围内采取所有行动。世界各国在今年5月举行的联合国生物多样性大会上开会时,还必须致力于一项积极的系统性变革议程。

“One thing this pandemic has taught us is how much we were taking for granted.”

“这次大流行告诉我们的一件事是,我们有多么认为一些寻常的事是理所当然的。”

Laurie Santos, professor of psychology at Yale University

耶鲁大学心理学教授劳里·桑托斯说

I think one thing this pandemic has taught us is how much we were taking for granted before. The ability to hang out in my favorite coffee shop, take a vacation, hang out with my friends and family members. I never experienced a sense of awe and joy at doing these activities before COVID, but I hope when I return to them after the pandemic, it will be with a bit more gratitude and a bit more understanding of how cherished these joy-inducing activities really should be. I think all of us will become a bit more appreciative of the little things we didn’t pay attention to before.

我认为这次大流行教会了我们一件事,那就是我们以前有多少是理所当然的。在我最喜欢的咖啡店闲逛,度假,和我的朋友和家人一起闲逛。在新冠肺炎之前,我从来没有体验过做这些活动时的敬畏和快乐,但我希望在疫情结束后,我再去做这些活动时,能多一点感激,多一点理解这些快乐的活动是多么值得珍惜。我想我们所有人都会对以前没有注意到的小事情更有感激之情。